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Tarabuso AM-36 - Storia

Tarabuso AM-36 - Storia


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Tarabuso

Il tarabuso è un uccello della famiglia degli aironi.

io

(AM-36; dp. 840; 1. 187'10" ; b. 35'6" ; dr. 9'10" ; s. 14 k.
cpl. 72; un. 2 3";cl. Pavoncella)

Il primo Tarabuso (AM-36) fu varato il 15 febbraio 1919 da Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co., Mobile, Ala.; sponsorizzato dalla signora C. R. Doll; e commissionato il 28 maggio 1919, al comando il tenente W. P. Bachmann.

Il primo compito di Tarabuso è stato quello di tenere il sottomarino tedesco catturato U-88 mentre faceva un tour espositivo dei porti del Golfo e della costa occidentale. Nel gennaio 1920 Bittern salpò per il Par East dove rimase per il resto del suo servizio attivo. Per la maggior parte dei successivi 21 anni ha svernato a Cavite, nelle Isole Filippine, e ha passato l'estate a Chefoo, in Cina. Ma la routine fu interrotta occasionalmente dall'assegnazione a spedizioni scientifiche e nel settembre 1923 da lavori di soccorso in seguito al terremoto di Yokohama, in Giappone.

Il raid aereo giapponese su Cavite Navy Yard il 10 dicembre 1941 trovò il tarabuso in riparazione. Sebbene non sia stato colpito, il Tarabuso ha subito ingenti danni da fuoco, quasi incidenti e detriti volanti da Sealion (SS-195) ormeggiati a fianco. Troppo gravemente danneggiato per essere riparato, il dragamine è stato affondato nella baia di Manila dopo che il suo equipaggio si era trasferito a Quail (AM-15).

Tarabuso ha ricevuto una stella di battaglia per il suo breve servizio nella seconda guerra mondiale.

Bittern (AM-352) fu varato da Willamette Iron and Steel Corp., Portland, Oregon, il 21 giugno 1944 ma cancellato il 1 novembre 1945 prima del completamento.


Tarabuso AM-36 - Storia

DIVISIONE DISTRUTTORI TRENTOTTO
Comandante William A. Glassford

TRACY (DD-214) (F)
Comandante William A. Glassford
SMITH THOMPSON (DD-212)
tenente comandante V. L. Kirman
WHIPPLE (DD-217)
Comandante Frank Jack Fletcher
BORIE (DD-215)
tenente comandante L. C. Scheibla
BARKER (DD-213)
Lt. D. M. Steece
GIOVANNI D. EDWARDS (DD-216)
Comandante W. H. Lee

STEWART (DD-224) (F)
tenente comandante H.B. McCleary

DIVISIONE SOTTOMARINI DICIOTTO
Comandante R.C. Needham

S-2 (SS-106)
Tenente William S. Popham, jr.
S-14 (SS-119)
Tenente J.J. Twomey
S-15 (SS-120)
Tenente (j.g.) C. C. Dyer
S-16 (SS-121)
Tenente L.W. Busby jr.
S-17 (SS-122)
Lt. R. S. Barrett

DIVISIONE SOTTOMARINI DODICI
Comandante William L. Friedell

S-3 (SS-107)**
Tenente G. Hutchins
S-4 (SS-109)
Tenente Humbert W. Ziroli
S-6 (SS-111)
Tenente J.P. Conover
S-7 (SS-112)
Lt. R. T. S. Gladden
S-8 (SS-113)
Tenente B.S. Killmaster
S-9 (SS-114)
Tenente Herbert B. Knowles

DIVISIONE DISTRUTTORI QUARANTACINQUE
Capitano C.S. Freeman

PREBILE (DD-345) (F)
Capitano C.S. Freeman
HULBERT (DD-342)
tenente comandante Frank A. Braisted
NOA (DD-343)
Comandante R. A. Tebaldo
WILLIAM B PRESTON (DD-344)
tenente comandante Willis A. Lee, jr.
SICARD (DD-346)
tenente comandante L.W. Comstock
PRUITT (DD-347)
Comandante H.W. McCormack

DIVISIONE DISTRUTTORI QUARANTATRE
.

PEARY (DD-226) (F)
Comandante J. S. Abbott
GIOVANNI D. FORD (DD-228)
tenente comandante H.H. Frost
PILLSBURY (DD-227)
tenente comandante H.V. McKittrick
PAPA (DD-225)
tenente comandante H. M. Lammers
TRUXTUN (DD-229)
tenente comandante T.H. Winters
PAUL JONES (DD-230)
tenente comandante Howard A. Flanigan

RIZAL (DM-14) (F)
Comandante W. E. Hall
HART (DM-8)
tenente comandante G. C. Barnes
TARARO (AM-36)
Lt. E. H. Geiselman
FINCH (AM-9)
Tenente L.F. Safford


Tarabuso AM-36 - Storia


1941 1942
La chiglia è stata posata Lanciato dalla Dott.ssa Aurelia H. Reinhardt


gennaio febbraio marzo aprile Maggio giugno
luglio agosto settembre ottobre novembre dicembre


gennaio febbraio marzo aprile Maggio giugno
luglio agosto settembre ottobre novembre dicembre



AREA PACIFICO SECONDA GUERRA MONDIALE
STORIA 1941-42

GRAZIE ALLA CRONOLOGIA NAVALE DEGLI STATI UNITI, SECONDA GUERRA MONDIALE

Ho modificato i file di cui sopra solo per l'area del Sud Pacifico. Il testo modificato è mostrato in NERO.

STORIA DELLA USS OAKLAND TESTO IN BLU

02/01 sab. La Marina annuncia la riorganizzazione della Flotta degli Stati Uniti: i vecchi nomi di Flotta Atlantica e Flotta del Pacifico resuscitati Flotta Asiatica rimangono invariati. L'ammiraglio HE Kimmel sostituisce l'ammiraglio JO Richardson come comandante in capo della flotta del Pacifico degli Stati Uniti, con incarico aggiuntivo di comandante in capo della flotta di pattuglia della flotta degli Stati Uniti, la flotta degli Stati Uniti diventa flotta atlantica e l'ammiraglio EJ King diventa comandante in capo degli Stati Uniti dell'Atlantico L'ammiraglio della flotta TC Hart continua come comandante in capo della flotta asiatica degli Stati Uniti.

04/09 mer. La corazzata NORTH CAROLINA (BB-55) viene commissionata a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

06/02 lun. LONG ISLAND (AVG-1), il primo vettore di scorta, viene commissionato a Newport News, Va.

Marina Militare. 284.427 Corpo dei Marines. 54,359

07/15 La chiglia della USS OAKLAND CL-95 è stata posata sulle vie della Bethlehem Steel Company, San Francisco, California.

27/09 sab. La prima nave Liberty, SS PATRICK HENRY, viene varata a Baltimora, Md.

10/20 lun. La portaerei HORNET (CV-8) viene messa in servizio a Norfolk, in Virginia.

Marina Militare. 2.004 Corpo dei Marines. 108 Armata. 222

[Le statistiche sulle vittime del personale per l'attacco di Pearl Harbor sono state riviste diverse volte dopo la valutazione di nuovi dati. Le cifre presentate qui sono state compilate nel 1955 da fonti ufficiali.] I giapponesi perdono 5 sottomarini nani, 28 aerei e meno di 100 uomini. Midway Island è bombardata da due cacciatorpediniere giapponesi. Il presidente ordina la mobilitazione. La dichiarazione di guerra giapponese raggiunge Washington, D. C. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti affondate da un attacco aereo: la corazzata OKLAHOMA (BB-37). Corazzata ARIZONA (BB-39). Corazzata CALIFORNIA (BB-44). Corazzata WEST VIRGINA (BB-48). [Tutte le navi affondate, eccetto ARIZONA, OKLAHOMA e UTAH, sono state sollevate, riparate e successivamente riportate in servizio.] MinelayerOGALA (CM-4). Nave bersaglio UTAH (AG-16) . Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Battleship NEVADA (BB-36). Corazzata PENNSYLVANIA (BB-38). Corazzata TENNESSEE (BB-43). Corazzata MARYLAND (BB-46). Incrociatore leggero RALEIGH (CL-7). Incrociatore leggero HONOLULU (CL-48). Incrociatore leggero HELENA (CL-50). Cacciatorpediniere CASSIN (DD-372). Cacciatorpediniere SHAW (DD-373). Distruttore DOWNES (DD-375). Tender idrovolante CURTISS (AV-4). Riparazione nave VESTAL (AR-4). Navi militari giapponesi perse: 5 sottomarini nani.

12/08 lun. Gli Stati Uniti dichiarano guerra al Giappone. Striking Force, flotta asiatica (Rear Adm. W. A. ​​Glassford) si diparte Iloilo, P. I., per lo stretto di Makassar, Indie orientali olandesi. Aerei giapponesi in operazioni ampiamente sparse bombardano Guam, Wake, Hong Kong, Singapore e le isole Filippine. Ingenti danni vengono inflitti agli aerei dell'esercito degli Stati Uniti a Clark Field, Luzon, P.I. Le forze giapponesi sbarcano sull'isola di Batan, a nord di Luzon, P.I., e sulla costa orientale della penisola malese. Il Giappone stagista marines e cittadini degli Stati Uniti a Shanghai e Tientsin, in Cina.

12/09 mar. I giapponesi occupano Bangkok, in Thailandia. Sbarco giapponese su Tarawa e Makin, Isole Gilbert. La Cina dichiara guerra a Giappone, Germania e Italia.

12/10 mer. Cavite Navy Yard, P.I., è gravemente danneggiato da un attacco aereo nemico. Guam si arrende alla forza da sbarco giapponese. Sbarco giapponese sull'isola di Camiguin e a Gonzaga e Aparri, Luzon, P. I. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: cacciatorpediniere PEARY (DD-226), da bombardiere orizzontale. Sottomarino SEADRAGON (SS-194), da bombardiere orizzontale. Sottomarino SEALION (SS-195), da bombardiere orizzontale. Dragamine BATTERN (AM-36), da bombardiere orizzontale. Navi militari giapponesi affondate: sottomarino I-170, da un aereo imbarcato, area delle Isole Hawaii, 23 d. 45' N., 155 d. 35' W. Minesweeper n. 10, da aerei dell'esercito, area delle Isole Filippine, 17 d. 32' N., 120 d. 22' E. Dragamine n. 19, danneggiato da aerei dell'esercito e messo a terra dalle proprie forze (perdita totale), area delle Isole Filippine, 18 d. 22, N., 121 d. 38'. e.

12/11 gio. Germania e Italia dichiarano guerra agli Stati Uniti. Gli Stati Uniti dichiarano guerra alla Germania e all'Italia. I giapponesi effettuano sbarchi a Legaspi, Luzon, P.I. Marines sull'isola di Wake respingono il tentativo di sbarco giapponese e affondano due cacciatorpediniere nemici. Navi militari giapponesi affondate: cacciatorpediniere HAYATE, da batterie costiere marine. Cacciatorpediniere KISARAGI, da aerei della Marina.

12/17 mer. L'ammiraglio posteriore C. W. Nimitz riceve l'ordine di sollevare l'ammiraglio H. E. Kimmel come comandante in capo della flotta del Pacifico, con il grado di ammiraglio vice ammiraglio. W. S. Pye diventa comandante in capo della flotta del Pacifico, in attesa dell'arrivo dell'ammiraglio Nimitz. Terra giapponese a Miri, Sarawak, Borneo.

12/20 sab. L'ammiraglio E.J. King è designato comandante in capo della flotta degli Stati Uniti con sede nel Dipartimento della Marina, Washington, D.C.

12/23 mar. Wake Island, che era stata soggetta a prolungati bombardamenti nemici, si arrende alla forza di invasione giapponese.

12/24 mer. Terreno giapponese a Lamon Bay, Luzon, P. I.

12/25 gio. L'ammiraglio T. C. Hart consegna tutte le forze navali rimanenti nelle isole Filippine al contrammiraglio F. W. Rockwell L'ammiraglio Hart parte in sottomarino per Giava per stabilire una nuova sede della flotta asiatica. Gli inglesi si arrendono a Hong Kong.

12/29 lun. Corregidor, P.I., viene bombardato per la prima volta da aerei giapponesi. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Tender sottomarino CANOPUS (AS-9), da bombardiere orizzontale, area delle Isole Filippine, 14 d. 25' N., 120 g. 20'E.

12/30 mar. L'ammiraglio E. J. King assume le funzioni di comandante in capo della flotta degli Stati Uniti.

31/12 mer. Adm. C. W. Nimitz assume il comando della flotta del Pacifico.

Grazie alla cronologia navale degli Stati Uniti, la seconda guerra mondiale

01/01 gio. Adm. R. E. Ingersoll succede all' Adm. E. J. King come comandante in capo della flotta atlantica.

01/02 ven. Manila e Cavite, P.I., cadono in mano ai giapponesi.

01/06 mar. La forza anfibia giapponese occupa la baia del Brunei, nel Borneo.

01/11 dom. I giapponesi iniziano l'invasione delle Indie orientali olandesi sbarcando a Tarakan e Jesselton, Borneo Menado e Kema, Celebes. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: la portaerei SARATOGA (CV-3), da un siluro sottomarino, 500 miglia a sud-ovest di Oahu, T. H.

01/21 mer. Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Incrociatore leggero BOISE (CL-47), per incaglio, Stretto di Sape, Indie orientali olandesi.

23/01/Ven. Terra giapponese a Balikpapan, Borneo. I giapponesi occupano Rabaul, Nuova Britannia, e sbarcano a Kieta, Bougainville, Isole Salomone.

01/24 sab. Battaglia di Balikpapan (Battaglia dello Stretto di Makassar): Il convoglio di invasione giapponese del Borneo subisce un attacco notturno con siluri al largo di Balikpapan, Borneo, da parte della divisione di cacciatorpediniere (Cdr. P. H. Talbot) composta da PARROTT (DD-218), POPE (DD-225), JOHN. D. FORD (DD-228) e PAUL JONES (DD-230) vengono affondati quattro trasporti nemici e un pattugliatore. Terreno giapponese a Kendari, Celebes Kavieng, Nuova Irlanda Subic Bay, P. I. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: cacciatorpediniere JOHN D. FORD (DD-228) da fuoco navale, area delle Indie orientali olandesi, 12 d. 00' S., 117 d. 01'E.

01/28 mer. Sbarco giapponese sull'isola di Rossel al largo della Nuova Guinea.

01/29 gio. Sbarco giapponese a Badoeng Island e Mampawan, Celebes. Terra giapponese all'isola di Amboina, Indie orientali olandesi.

02/01 dom. Due task force portaerei (Vice Adm. WF Halsey e Rear Adm. FJ Fletcher) e un gruppo di bombardamento (Rear Adm. RA Spruance), per un totale di 2 portaerei, 5 incrociatori e 10 cacciatorpediniere, attaccano Kwajalein, Wotje, Maloelap, Jaluit, e Mili nelle Isole Marshall e Makin, nelle Isole Gilbert. Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6), da un attentatore suicida, raid Marshall-Gilberts. 10 giorni 33' N., 171 d. 53' E. Incrociatore pesante CHESTER (CA-27), da bombardiere in picchiata, raid Marshall-Gilberts. 08 d. 45' N., 171 d. 33' E. 02/04 mer. Aerei giapponesi bombardano la forza alleata (Rear Adm. KWFM Doorman, Royal Netherlands Navy) di 4 incrociatori e cacciatorpediniere di accompagnamento che tentano il transito nello stretto di Madoera per attaccare la flotta di invasione del Borneo giapponese: navi militari degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: incrociatore pesante HOUSTON (CA-30), da bombardieri orizzontali. Incrociatore leggero MARBLEHEAD (CL-12), da bombardieri orizzontali. 07 d. 23' S., 115 D. 47' E. Le truppe giapponesi sbarcano a Gasmata, Nuova Britannia. Le forze giapponesi sbarcano a Sumatra, nelle Indie orientali olandesi.

02/19 gio. Bali, Indie orientali olandesi, viene invasa dai giapponesi. La battaglia dello stretto di Badoeng inizia di notte e continua il giorno successivo. La forza navale alleata (Rear Adm. K. W. F. M. Doorman, Royal Netherlands Navy) di tre incrociatori e cacciatorpediniere di accompagnamento attaccano la forza di occupazione giapponese di Bali in pensione nello stretto di Badoeng.

02/20 ven. I giapponesi invadono l'isola di Timor nelle Indie orientali olandesi. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: cacciatorpediniere STEWART (DD-224), da fuoco navale, battaglia dello stretto di Badoeng. 07 d. 18' S., 112 d. 46' E. 02/27 ven. La battaglia del Mar di Giava viene combattuta mentre la forza navale alleata (Leggi Adm. K. W. F. M. Doorman, Royal Netherlands Navy) di 5 incrociatori e 11 cacciatorpediniere nel Mar di Giava vicino a Surabaya attacca la forza nemica che copre il convoglio di invasione di Giava. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: Incrociatore pesante HOUSTON (CA-30), da arma da fuoco navale.

03/01 dom. La battaglia dello Stretto della Sonda, iniziata poco prima della mezzanotte del 28 febbraio 1942, continua. Dopo la battaglia del Mar di Giava (vedi 27 febbraio 1942) le navi alleate dirette verso lo stretto della Sonda vengono attaccate da forze di superficie giapponesi superiori. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti affondate: Incrociatore pesante HOUSTON (CA-30), da siluri e spari. 05 d. 50' S., 105 D. 55' E. Destroyer POPE (DD-225), da bombardiere in picchiata, e spari di superficie. 04 d. 00' S., 111 d. 30' E. Cacciatorpediniere EDSALL (DD-219), da fuoco navale, a sud dell'Isola di Natale, Cacciatorpediniere PILLSBURY (DD-227), da fuoco navale, a sud dell'Isola di Natale, 14 d. 30' S., 106 D. 30' E. Oiler PECOS (AO-6) , da bombardiere in picchiata, a sud di Christmas Island, 14 d. 27' S., 106 d. 11'E.

03/08 dom. Le forze giapponesi invadono Lae e Salamaua, in Nuova Guinea.

03/10 mar. Gli aerei delle portaerei LEXINGTON (CV-2) e YORKTOWN (CV-5) bombardano le navi giapponesi a Salamaua e Lae, in Nuova Guinea. I giapponesi invadono Finschhafen, Nuova Guinea (vedi 26 marzo 1942).

03/20 ven. La corazzata South Dakota (BB-57) viene commissionata a New York, N. Y.

03/29 dom. I marines arrivano a Efate, Nuove Ebridi.

03/30 lun. L'isola di Natale è occupata dalle forze giapponesi.

04/01 mer. I giapponesi occupano l'isola di Buka, nelle Isole Salomone.

04/03 ven. L'ammiraglio C. W. Nimitz, USN, è nominato comandante in capo delle aree dell'Oceano Pacifico (CINCPOA) L'ammiraglio Nimitz è anche comandante in capo della flotta del Pacifico (CINCPAC).

04/09 gio. Le forze degli Stati Uniti e delle Filippine su Bataan, P.I., si arrendono ai giapponesi.

04/18 sab. Il vice ammiraglio WF Halsey nella portaerei HORNET (CV-8) lancia 16 B-25 dell'esercito (Lt. Col. JH Doolittle) a oltre 650 miglia a est di Honshu, i bombardieri giapponesi hanno colpito Tokyo, Yokosuka, Yokohoma, Kobe e Nagoya, Giappone.

04/30 Thu.Battleship INDIANA (BB-58) viene commissionato a Newport News, Va.

05/02 sab. Terra giapponese sull'isola della Florida, Isole Salomone.

05/04 lun. La battaglia del Mar dei Coralli (4-8 maggio) inizia con un attacco aereo su Tulagi, nelle Isole Salomone, da parte di aerei con base negli Stati Uniti. Le forze navali alleate (Rear Adm. F. J. Fletcher, USN) comprendono:

Gruppo di attacco (Rear Adm. TC Kinkaid, USN) degli incrociatori statunitensi CHESTER (CA-27), NEW ORLEANS (CA-32), PORTLAND (CA-33), ASTORIA (CA-34), MINNEAPOLIS (CA-36) . Cacciatorpediniere FARRAGUT (DD-348), DEWEY (DD-340), MONAGHAN (DD-354), AYLWIN (DD-355) e PHELPS (DD-360).

Support Group (Rear Adm. J. G. Crace, RN) con l'incrociatore statunitense CHICAGO (CA-29), gli incrociatori australiani AUSTRALIA e HOBART. Cacciatorpediniere statunitensi PERKINS (DD-377) e WALKE (DD-416).

Carrier Group (Rear Adm. A. W. Fitch, USN) costituito dai vettori degli Stati Uniti LEXINGTON (CV-2) e YORKTOWN (CV-5). Cacciatorpediniere ANDERSON (DD-411), HAMMANN (DD-412), RUSSELL (DD-414) e MORRIS (DD-417).

Fueling Group (Capt. J. S. Phillips, USN) che include gli oliatori statunitensi TIPPECANOE (AO-21) e NEOSHO (A0-23). Cacciatorpediniere WORDEN (DD-352) e SIMS (DD-409).

Nave da guerra giapponese affondata: cacciatorpediniere KIKUZUKI, da un aereo imbarcato, Tulagi, Isole Salomone.

05/05 mar. La forza alleata del contrammiraglio F. J. Fletcher, dopo aver fatto rifornimento, cambia rotta per intercettare il gruppo di invasione giapponese di Port Moresby (battaglia del Mar dei Coralli, 4-8 maggio). Le forze giapponesi sbarcano su Corregidor, P.I.

05/06 mer. La forza alleata del contrammiraglio F. J. Fletcher è in rotta per intercettare il gruppo di invasione giapponese di Port Moresby (battaglia del Mar dei Coralli, 4-8 maggio). I forti di Corregidor e Manila Bay, P.I., si arrendono ai giapponesi.

05/07 gio. La forza alleata del contrammiraglio F.J. Fletcher vira a nord per ingaggiare il gruppo d'attacco giapponese. Il gruppo di supporto (Rear Adm. Crace, RN) viene distaccato per intercettare il gruppo nemico di Port Moresby Invasion. Le navi dell'ammiraglio Crace vengono attaccate da aerosiluranti e bombardieri terrestri nemici e, scambiate per la forza di invasione giapponese di Port Moresby, vengono bombardate da aerei B-26 dell'esercito. Aerei portaerei attaccano il gruppo di supporto giapponese e affondano la portaerei SHOHO (Battaglia del Mar dei Coralli, 4-8 maggio). Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: cacciatorpediniere SIMS (DD-409), da un bombardiere in picchiata. 15 gg. 10' S., 158 d. 05' E. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: Oiler NEOSHO (AO-23), da un bombardiere in picchiata, e affondata dalle forze statunitensi l'11 maggio 1942. 15 d. 10' S., 158 d. 05' E., nave militare giapponese affondata: Portaerei SHOHO, da un aereo imbarcato, 10 d. 29' S., 152 d. 55' E. Hollandia, Nuova Guinea, è occupata dalle forze giapponesi.

05/08 ven. La portaerei LEXINGTON (CV-2) cerca aerei in vista delle portaerei giapponesi SHOKAKU e ZUIKAKU. La portaerei dell'ammiraglio di coda F. J. Fletcher danneggia la SHOKAKU e la costringe al ritiro. Allo stesso tempo, gli aerei giapponesi hanno colpito le portaerei YORKTOWN (CV-5) e LEXINGTON (CV-2), danneggiando quest'ultima a tal punto che il cacciatorpediniere PHELPS (DD-360) riceve l'ordine di affondarla. (Battaglia del Mar dei Coralli 4-8 maggio.) [Questa è la prima battaglia nella storia navale moderna in cui le navi da guerra avversarie non si sono scambiate un colpo, tutti i danni sono stati inflitti da aerei da trasporto. Coral Sea è stata una vittoria strategica degli Stati Uniti. La spinta giapponese fino a quel momento ininterrotta verso sud-est fu interrotta.] Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: Portaerei LEXINGTON (CV-2) , gravemente danneggiata da aerosiluranti basati su portaerei e, in condizioni di affondamento, affondata dalle forze degli Stati Uniti. 15 giorni 12 S., 155 D. 27' E. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: Portaerei YORKTOWN (CV-5), da bombardieri in picchiata basati su portaerei. 14 d. 35' S., 155 D. 15' E.

05/12 mar. La corazzata MASSACHUSETTS (BB-59) viene commissionata a Boston, Massachusetts.

05/28 gio. Le forze degli Stati Uniti arrivano a Espiritu Santo, nelle Nuove Isole Ebridi.

06/02 mar. Due task force portaerei (Rear Adm. F.J. Fletcher e Rear Adm. R.A. Spruance) si danno appuntamento a circa 350 miglia a nord-est di Midway Island. [La composizione delle forze navali degli Stati Uniti nella battaglia di Midway era la seguente:]

Adm posteriore. F. J. Fletcher (Task Force 17) - Carrier YORKTOWN (CV-5), incrociatore pesante PORTLAND (CA-33) e ASTORIA (CA-34). Cacciatorpediniere HUGHES (DD-410), ANDERSON (DD-411), HAMMANN (DD-412), RUSSELL (DD-414), MORRIS (DD-417) e GWIN (DD-433)

Retro Adm. RA Spruance (Task Force 16) - Portaerei ENTERPRISE (CV-6) e HORNET (CV-8), Incrociatore pesante PENSACOLA (CA-24), NORTHAMPTON (CA-26), NEW ORLEANS (CA-32), MINNEAPOLIS (CA-36), e VINCENNES (CA-44), incrociatore leggero ATLANTA (CL-51), cacciatorpediniere DEWEY (DD-349), WORDEN (DD-352), MONAGHAN (DD-354), AYLWIN (DD- 355), PHELPS (DD-360) BALCH (DD-363), CONYNGHAM (DD-371), BENHAM (DD-397), ELLET (DD-398), MAURY (DD-401) e MONSSEN (DD-436 ), Oliatori CIMARRON (AO-22), e PLATE (AO-24).

Sottomarini di pattuglia e ricognizione NARWHAL (SS-167), NAUTILUS (SS-168), DOLPHIN (SS-169), CACHALOT (SS-170), SEPPIE (SS-171), Luccio (SS-173), TARPON ( SS-175), PISTONE (SS-179), TAMBOR (SS-198), TROTA (SS-202), temoli (SS-209), GRENADIER (SS-210), GUDGEON (SS-211), GATO (SS -212), CERNIA (SS-214), GROWLER (SS-215), FLYING FISH (SS-229), FINBACK (SS-230) e TRIGGER (SS-237).]

06/03 mer. Gli aerei con base a Midway localizzano e attaccano i trasporti della flotta combinata giapponese (ammiraglio Yamamoto) a circa 600 miglia a ovest dell'isola di Midway.

06/04 gio. La battaglia di Midway (4-6 giugno) si apre quando gli aerei di quattro portaerei giapponesi colpiscono le installazioni dell'isola di Midway, che sono difese da aerei della marina e dell'esercito. Le task force portaerei (Rear Adm. F.J. Fletcher e Rear Adm. R.A. Spruance) lanciano aerei dalle portaerei ENTERPRISE (CV-6) , HORNET (CV-6) e YORKTOWN (CV-5) che colpiscono quattro portaerei giapponesi. YORKTOWN è disabilitata dagli aerei della portaerei giapponese. L'ammiraglio Yamamoto abbandona i piani di Midway e si ritira verso ovest. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: Carrier YORKTOWN (CV-5), da aereo imbarcato. 33 d. 51' N., 177 d. 01' W. Navi militari giapponesi affondate: Carrier KAGA, da aerei basati su portaerei. 30 giorni 23' N., 177 d. 01' W. Carrier SORYU, con aereo da portaerei e sottomarino NAUTILUS (SS-168). 30 giorni 42' N., 179 d. 37' W.

06/05 ven. La task force Carrier (Rear Adm. R. A. Spruance) insegue la flotta giapponese verso ovest (Battaglia di Midway, 4-6 giugno). Navi militari giapponesi affondate: Portaerei AKAGI, danneggiata da aerei basati su portaerei, Battaglia di Midway, affondata dalle proprie forze, 30 d. 30' N., 179 d. 40' W. Portaerei HIRYU, danneggiata da un aereo imbarcato, Battaglia di Midway, affondata dalle proprie forze, 31 d. 28 N., 179 d. 24' E.

06/06 sab. Gli aerei delle portaerei ENTERPRISE (CV-6) e HORNET (CV-8) attaccano la forza giapponese che si sta ritirando da Midway. Dopo aver recuperato gli aerei, la forza degli Stati Uniti cambia rotta verso est per fare rifornimento e interrompe il contatto con il nemico (Battaglia di Midway, 4-6 giugno). [La battaglia di Midway è stata una delle battaglie più decisive nella storia navale. Fu il punto di svolta della guerra del Pacifico. Oltre alla paralizzante perdita di quattro portaerei, i giapponesi hanno subito la perdita di una grande percentuale dei loro piloti di portaerei più altamente addestrati ed esperti in battaglia. (Vedi dal 2 al 6 giugno 1942).] Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: cacciatorpediniere HAMMANN (DD-412), da un siluro sottomarino. 30 giorni 36' N., 176 D. 34' l. Nave da guerra giapponese affondata: incrociatore pesante MIKUMA, da aerei basati su portaerei navali e aerei terrestri marini. 30 giorni 00' N., 173 d. 00' E.

Marina Militare. 640.570 Corpo dei Marines. 143.528

07/21 mar. I giapponesi sbarcano e occupano Buna, in Nuova Guinea.

07/30 gio. Viene istituita la Women's Naval Reserve (WAVES).

08/07 ven. I marines sbarcano in Florida, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanambogo e Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, nella prima offensiva terrestre americana della guerra. Sotto la copertura della superficie navale e delle forze aeree (Vice Adm. F. J. Fletcher), la 1st Marine Division (Maj. Gen. A. A. Vandegrift) viene sbarcata dalla Amphibious Force, South Pacific (Rear Adm. R. K. Turner). Gli atterraggi sono supportati da portaerei e velivoli da terra (Rear Adm. L. Noyes e Rear Adm. J. S. McCain). Il comandante generale è Vice Adm. R. L. Ghormley, Comandante South Pacific, e l'ufficiale al comando tattico è Vice Adm. F. J. Fletcher. Incrociatore navale e cacciatorpediniere forza (Rear Adm. W. W. Smith) bombarda Kiska, Isole Aleutine. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: cacciatorpediniere MUGFORD (DD-389), da un bombardiere in picchiata, area delle Isole Salomone, 09 d. 00' S., 160 d. 00' E.

08/08 sab. I marines ottengono il controllo di Tulagi, Gavutu e Tanambogo, Isole Salomone. Una pista aerea nemica incompiuta su Guadalcanal viene catturata e ribattezzata Henderson Field. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: Transport GEORGE F. ELLIOTT (AP-13), danneggiata da attentatori suicidi, area delle Isole Salomone e affondata dalle forze degli Stati Uniti, 09 d. 10' S., 160, 10' E. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: cacciatorpediniere JARVIS (DD-393), da siluro aereo, area delle Isole Salomone, 09 d. 10' S., 160 D. 01 E.

08/09 dom. La battaglia dell'isola di Savo inizia nell'oscurità quando una forza giapponese di 7 incrociatori e 1 cacciatorpediniere si avvicina a ovest dell'isola di Savo, nelle Isole Salomone, senza essere scoperta. Il nemico affonda 4 incrociatori alleati e danneggia 1 altro incrociatore e 2 cacciatorpediniere con siluri e spari prima di ritirarsi. Le navi alleate partono dall'area di Guadalcanal. Le navi giapponesi controllano temporaneamente le acque intorno a Guadalcanal, nelle Isole Salomone. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti affondate: Incrociatori pesanti ASTORIA (CA-34), QUINCY (CA-39) e VINCENNES (CA-44) , da spari navali, [Il quarto incrociatore affondato fu la nave australiana CANBERRA .] Cacciatorpediniere JARVIS (DD- 393) , da attacco aereo, Isole Salomone, 09 d. 42' S., 158 D. 59' E. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Incrociatore pesante CHICAGO (CA-29), dai cacciatorpediniere cacciatorpediniere RALPH TALBOT (DD-390) e PATTERSON (DD-392), da spari navali.

08/16 dom. La corazzata ALABAMA (BB-60) viene commissionata a Portsmouth, in Virginia.

08/17 lun. Secondo Battaglione Raider ("Razziatori di Carlson"), Corpo dei Marines, trasportato dai sottomarini NAUTILUS (SS-168) e ARGONAUT (APS-1), fa irruzione nell'isola di Makin nelle Isole Gilbert.

08/24 lun. La battaglia delle Salomone orientali inizia e continua fino al giorno successivo. Gli aerei basati su portaerei navali (Vice Adm. F. J. Fletcher) supportati da aerei della marina e dell'esercito respingono il principale tentativo giapponese di riconquistare Guadalcanal e Tulagi, nelle Isole Salomone. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: Carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6), da un bombardiere in picchiata. 08 d. 38 S., 163 D. 30' E. Nave da guerra giapponese affondata: Portaerei RYUJO, da un aereo imbarcato. 06 gg. 10' S., 160 D. 50' E.

25/08 mar. I giapponesi occupano Nauru, le isole Gilbert e l'isola di Goodenough, al largo della costa sud-orientale della Nuova Guinea. Nave da guerra giapponese affondata: cacciatorpediniere MUZUKI, da aerei dell'esercito, battaglia delle Salomone orientali.

08/30 dom. Le forze navali e dell'esercito degli Stati Uniti occupano Adak, nelle isole Aleutine, come base aerea e navale. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: trasporto ad alta velocità CALHOUN (APD-2) , da un bombardiere orizzontale, area delle Isole Salomone, 09 d. 24' S., 160 D. 01'E.

31/08 lun. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: la portaerei SARATOGA (CV-3), da un siluro sottomarino, 260 miglia a sud-est di Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, 10 d. 34' S., 164 D. 18' E.

09/05 sab. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti affondate: trasporti ad alta velocità GREGORY (APD-3) e LITTLE (APD-4) , da spari di navi di superficie, area delle Isole Salomone, 09 d. 20' S., 160 D. 01'E.

09/06 dom. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: Battleship SOUTH DAKOTA (BB-57), colpendo la barriera corallina, Lahai Passage, Isole Tonga.

09/15 mar. La task force portaerei (Rear Adm. L. Noyes) che si occupa del trasporto di rinforzi da Espiritu Santo, Nuove Ebridi, a Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, viene attaccata da 2 sottomarini giapponesi che affondano 1 portaerei e danneggiano una corazzata e un cacciatorpediniere. Le corazzate giapponesi bombardano Guadalcanal, nelle Isole Salomone. Navi militari degli Stati Uniti affondate: Carrier WASP (CV-7) , gravemente danneggiata da un siluro sottomarino, vicino a Espiritu Santo, Nuove Ebridi, affondata dalle forze degli Stati Uniti. 12 giorni 25' S., 164 D. 08' E. Navi da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Corazzata NORTH CAROLINA (BB-55) e cacciatorpediniere O'BRIEN (DD-415), da siluri sottomarini, vicino a Espiritu Santo, Nuove Ebridi Le forze giapponesi evacuano Attu, Isole Aleutine. (Vedi 30 ottobre 1942.)

09/18 ven. Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, è rinforzata dal 7° Reggimento Marine.

09/24 gio. Terra giapponese a Maiana, Isole Gilbert.

25/09 ven. Sbarco giapponese a Beru, Isole Gilbert.

27/09 dom. Sbarco giapponese a Kuria, Isole Gilbert. 10 giorni 47' S., 161 d. 16' E.

09/30 mer. Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Incrociatore pesante SAN FRANCISCO (CA-38) e cacciatorpediniere BREESE (DD-122), per collisione, area delle Nuove Ebridi, 15 d. 39' S., 167 d. 39' E.]

10/02 ven. I marines occupano Funafuti, Isole Ellice.

10/05 lun. Aerei portatori (Rear Adm. G. D. Murrary) bombardano l'area di Buin-Tonolei e Faisi, Bougainville, Isole Salomone.

10/11 dom. La battaglia di Cape Esperance inizia di notte e continua il 12 ottobre. Le forze di superficie (Rear Adm. N. Scott) attaccano incrociatori e cacciatorpediniere nemici diretti a Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, sul "Tokyo Express". Due incrociatori statunitensi e due cacciatorpediniere sono danneggiati. Un cacciatorpediniere giapponese viene affondato, due incrociatori e un cacciatorpediniere sono danneggiati. Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Incrociatore pesante SALT LAKE CITY (CA-25), da fuoco navale. Incrociatore leggero BOISE (CL-47), da fuoco navale. Cacciatorpediniere DUNCAN (DD-485), da fuoco navale. Cacciatorpediniere FARENHOLT (DD-491), da fuoco navale. Nave da guerra giapponese affondata: cacciatorpediniere FUBUKI, con imbarcazioni di superficie, al largo dell'isola di Savo.

10/12 lun. Nave degli Stati Uniti affondata: il cacciatorpediniere DUNCAN (DD-485) , da fuoco navale, al largo dell'isola di Savo. Navi militari giapponesi affondate: Incrociatore FURUTAKA, con imbarcazioni di superficie, al largo dell'isola di Savo. Cacciatorpediniere NATSUGUMO, da aerei navali e marini, al largo dell'isola di Savo. Cacciatorpediniere MURAKUMO, da aerei navali e marini, al largo dell'isola di Savo.

10/13 mar. La 1st Marine Division è rinforzata dal 164th Infantry Regiment of Americal Division, United States Army, questa è la prima grande unità a raggiungere Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone.

14/10 mer. Motosiluranti ingaggiano cacciatorpediniere giapponesi che controllano corazzate e incrociatori che bombardano Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: il cacciatorpediniere MEREDITH (DD-434) da un siluro aereo, al largo di San Cristobal, Isole Salomone.

19/10 lun. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: il cacciatorpediniere O'BRIEN (DD-415), in rotta verso gli Stati Uniti per riparazioni in battaglia, spezzandosi in due, al largo di Samoa, 13 d. 30' S., 171 d. 18' E.

10/20 mar. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiata: incrociatore pesante CHESTER (CA-27), da siluro sottomarino, tra San Cristobal, Isole Salomone ed Espiritu Santo, Nuove Ebridi, 13 d. 31 S., 163 d. 17' E.

23/10 La USS OAKLAND CL-95 è stata LANCIATA, sponsorizzata dalla Dott.ssa Aurelia H. Reinhardt, Presidente del Mills College, Oakland, California.

10/26 lun. La battaglia delle isole Santa Cruz viene unita mentre le task force della portaerei (Rear Adm. TC Kinkaid e Rear Adm. GD Murray) chiudono una forza giapponese numericamente superiore alle forze degli Stati Uniti vengono inflitti gravi danni ma il movimento giapponese immediato verso Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, viene controllato . La battaglia di Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, termina quando i marines respingono gli attacchi terrestri e aerei giapponesi. Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6), da un bombardiere in picchiata. Portaerei HORNET (CV-8), da un attacco aereo. Corazzata SOUTH DAKOTA (BB-57), da bombardiere in picchiata. Incrociatore leggero SAN JUAN (CL-54), da bombardiere in picchiata. Cacciatorpediniere PORTER (DD-356), da siluro sottomarino, e affondato dalle forze degli Stati Uniti. Cacciatorpediniere SMITH (DD-378), da attentatore suicida. Cacciatorpediniere HUGHES (DD-410), per collisione.

27/10 mar. Nave da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondata: Carrier HORNET (CV-8), da bombardieri in picchiata, aerosiluranti e siluri cacciatorpediniere, 08 d. 38' S., 166 d. 43' E. Navi da guerra degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: la corazzata SOUTH DAKOTA (BB-57) e il cacciatorpediniere MAHAN (DD-364), per collisione.

10/30 ven. La seconda forza di invasione giapponese atterra ad Attu, nelle Isole Aleutine. (Vedi 16 settembre 1942.)

11/12 gio. La battaglia navale di Guadalcanal (12-15 novembre) si apre quando i trasporti (Rear Adm. R. K. Turner) che scaricano truppe in Lunga Roads, Guadalcanal, Isole Salomone, sotto la protezione delle forze aeree e di superficie, vengono attaccati da aerei giapponesi. Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Incrociatore pesante SAN FRANCISCO (CA-38), da aerei giapponesi. Il cacciatorpediniere Buchanan (DD-484), accidentalmente da fuoco navale degli Stati Uniti. Sottomarino giapponese affondato: I-22, da PT-122, a sud-ovest della Nuova Guinea, 08 d. 32' S., 148 D. 17' E.

11/13 ven. Il gruppo di supporto di atterraggio (Rear Adm. D. J. Callaghan) incontra il gruppo di incursioni giapponesi, tra cui due corazzate, che stanno per bombardare Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, un'azione navale devastante segue nell'oscurità al largo di Guadalcanal, nelle Isole Salomone. Gravi danni vengono inflitti alle forze degli Stati Uniti prima che il Gruppo di incursioni giapponesi si ritiri verso nord. La forza portante (Rear Adm. T. C. Kinkaid) arriva vicino all'area di battaglia e lancia ricerche aeree e attacchi contro il nemico (battaglia navale di Guadalcanal, 12-15 novembre). Navi da guerra degli Stati Uniti affondate: Incrociatore leggero ATLANTA (CL-51), da fuoco navale. Incrociatore leggero JUNEAU (CL-52), con siluro sottomarino, mentre lascia l'area delle Isole Salomone per procedere verso Espiritu Santo, Nuove Ebridi, dopo la battaglia di Guadalcanal. Cacciatorpediniere CUSHING (DD-376) , da fuoco navale. Cacciatorpediniere MONSSEN (DD-436), da fuoco navale. Cacciatorpediniere LAFFEY (DD-459) , da spari e siluri da imbarcazioni di superficie . Navi della Marina degli Stati Uniti danneggiate: Incrociatore pesante PORTLAND (CA-33), da siluro da imbarcazioni di superficie. Incrociatore leggero HELENA (CL-50), da fuoco navale. Cacciatorpediniere STERETT (DD-407), da fuoco navale. Il cacciatorpediniere O'BANNON (DD-450), accidentalmente da fuoco navale degli Stati Uniti. Cacciatorpediniere AARON WARD (DD-483), da fuoco navale. Navi navali giapponesi affondate: la corazzata HIEI, da spari navali, aerei basati su portaerei e aerei terrestri marini. Cacciatorpediniere AKATSUKI, da fuoco navale. Cacciatorpediniere YUDACHI, da fuoco navale.

11/14 sab. Japanese cruisers and destroyers engaged in night bombardment of Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, area attacked by motor torpedo boats. In the morning this enemy force, while retiring, is struck by Marine and Naval aircraft from Henderson Field, and aircraft from carrier ENTERPRISE (CV-6). The same aircraft sink seven Japanese transports during the afternoon. Beginning shortly before midnight and continuing on 15 November, battleship force (Rear Adm. W. W. Lee) composed of 2 battleships and 3 destroyers engages and turns back large Japanese Naval Group (Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, 12-15 November). United States naval vessels sunk: Destroyer PRESTON (DD-379) , by naval gunfire. Destroyer WALKE (DD-416) , by gunfire and torpedo from surface vessel. Japanese naval vessels sunk: Heavy cruiser KINUGASA, by Naval and Marine aircraft.

11/15 Sun. Naval Battle of Guadalcanal ends. [Although the United States suffered greater loss in warships, the Japanese withdrew and never again sent large naval forces into the waters around Guadalcanal the ultimate outcome of the struggle for the island was decided.] United States naval vessel sunk: Destroyer BENHAM (DD-397) , damaged by torpedo and sunk by United States forces . United States naval vessels damaged: Battleship SOUTH DAKOTA (BB-57), by naval gunfire. Destroyer GWIN (DD-433), by naval gunfire . Japanese naval vessels sunk: Battleship KIRISHIMA, by naval gunfire. Destroyer AYANAMI, by naval gunfire.

11/16 Mon. Army forces land south of Buna, New Guinea.

11/24 Tue. Japanese forces land at Munda Point, New Georgia, Solomon Islands.

11/30 Mon. Battle of Tassafaronga, occurs at night when cruiser and destroyer force (Read Adm. C. H. Wright) engages Japanese destroyers (Rear Adm. Tanaka) off Tassafaronga Point, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands enemy torpedoes do heavy damage. United States naval vessels damaged: Heavy cruiser PENSACOLA (CA-24), NORTHAMPTON (CA-26), NEW ORLEANS (CA-32), and MINNEAPOLIS (CA-36), by torpedoes from Japanese destroyers. Japanese naval vessel sunk: Destroyer TAKANAMI, by surface craft.


Contenuti

Tarabuso was launched 15 February 1919 by Alabama Dry Dock and Shipbuilding Co., Mobile, Alabama sponsored by Mrs. C. R. Doll and commissioned 28 May 1919, Lieutenant William P. Bachman in command. Tarabuso ' s first duty was as tender to the captured German submarine SM UB-88 while she made an exhibition tour of the U.S. Gulf Coast and U.S. West Coast ports.

In January 1920 Tarabuso sailed for the Far East where she remained for the rest of her active service. Throughout most of the next 21 years she wintered at Cavite, Philippine Islands, and summered at Chefoo, China. But the routine was broken occasionally by assignment to scientific expeditions and in September 1923 by relief work following the Yokohama, Japan, earthquake.

Fate [ edit ]

The Japanese air raid on Cavite Navy Yard on 10 December 1941 found Tarabuso undergoing repairs. Although not hit, Tarabuso suffered extensive damage from fire, near misses, and flying debris from USS Leone marino moored alongside. Too badly damaged for repair, the minesweeper was scuttled in Manila Bay after her crew had transferred to USS Quaglia.


U.S. Navy Amphibious Ships

40 x Landing Ship, Tank (LST)

USS LST-6 sunk by a mine in the Seine River while en route from Rouen, France, to Portland, England, 18 November 1944.

USS LST-43 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-69 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-158 sunk by aircraft off Licata, Sicily, 11 July 1943.

USS LST-167 stricken after being damaged beyond repair by Japanese aircraft off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 25 September 1943.

USS LST-179 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-203 destroyed by grounding near Nanumea, Ellice Islands, 2 October 1943.

USS LST-228 destroyed by grounding near Bahia Angra Island, Azores, 21 January 1944.

USS LST-282 sunk by a glider bomb off St. Tropez, France, 15 August 1944.

USS LST-313 sunk by German aircraft off Gela, Sicily, 10 July 1943.

USS LST-314 sunk by German motor torpedo boats off Normandy, France, 9 June 1944.

USS LST-318 sunk by aircraft off Caronia, Sicily, 10 August 1943.

USS LST-333 sunk by German submarine U-593 off Dellys, Algeria, 22 June 1943.

USS LST-342 sunk by Japanese submarine RO-106 west of Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, 18 July 1943.

USS LST-348 sunk by German submarine U-410 off Anzio, Italy, 20 February 1944.

USS LST-349 sunk after running aground off Ponza, Italy, 26 February 1944.

USS LST-353 sunk by internal explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-359 sunk by German submarine U-870 northeast of the Azores, 20 December 1944.

USS LST-376 sunk by German motor torpedo boats off Normandy, France, 9 June 1944.

USS LST-396 sunk by accidental fire and explosion off Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands, 18 August 1943.

USS LST-447 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 7 April 1945.

USS LST-448 sunk by Japanese aircraft off Bougainville, Solomon Islands, 5 October 1943.

USS LST-460 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 21 December 1944.

USS LST-472 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 15 December 1944.

USS LST-480 sunk by explosion at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

USS LST-493 destroyed after grounding while attempting to enter Plymouth Harbor, England, 12 April 1945.

USS LST-496 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 11 June 1944.

USS LST-499 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 8 June 1944.

USS LST-507 sunk by German motor torpedo boats in Lyme Bay, England, 28 April 1944.

USS LST-523 sunk by a mine off Normandy, France, 19 June 1944.

USS LST-531 sunk by German motor torpedo boats in Lyme Bay, England, 28 April 1944.

USS LST-563 grounded off Clipperton Island, southwest Pacific, 22 December 1944, and abandoned, 9 February 1945.

USS LST-577 sunk by Japanese submarine RO-50 east of Mindanao, Philippine Islands, 11 February 1945.

USS LST-675 grounded off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 April 1945, and abandoned, 17 September 1945..

USS LST-738 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 15 December 1944.

USS LST-749 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Mindoro, Philippine Islands, 21 December 1944.

USS LST-750 sunk by Japanese aircraft off Los Negros, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 28 December 1944.

USS LST-808 grounded after being damaged by Japanese aircraft off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 18 May 1945, and destroyed, 11 November 1945.

USS LST- 906 grounded off Leghorn, Italy, 18 October 1944, and scrapped, 22 June 1945..

USS LST-921 torpedoed by German submarine U-764 off the channel entrance to Bristol, England, 14 August 1944, and struck from the Navy list, 14 October 1944.

6 x Landing Ship, Medium (LSM)

USS LSM-12 foundered after being damaged by a Japanese suicide boat off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 April 1945.

USS LSM-20 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Ormoc, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 5 December 1944.

USS LSM-59 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 21 June 1945.

USS LSM-135 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 25 May 1945.

USS LSM-149 grounded off the Philippine Islands, 5 December 1944.

USS LSM-318 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Ormoc, Leyte, Philippine Islands, 7 December 1944.

3 x Landing Ship, Medium (Rocket) (LSMR)

USS LSMR-190 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945.

USS LSMR-194 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 May 1945.

USS LSMR-195 sunk by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 3 May 1945.

71 x Landing Craft, Tank (LCT)

LCT(5)-19 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 15 September 1943.

LCT(5)-21 sunk off Oran, Algeria, 1 January 1943.

LCT(5)-23 sunk at Algiers, Algeria, 3 May 1943.

LCT(5)-25 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-26 sunk, 25 February 1944, and stricken from the Navy List, 6 March 1944.

LCT(5)-27 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-28 sunk in the Mediterranean Sea, 30 May 1943.

LCT(5)-30 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-35 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 15 February 1944.

LCT(5)-36 sunk off Naples, Italy, 26 February 1944.

LCT(5)-66 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 12 April 1945.

LCT(5)-71 sunk, 11 September 1943.

LCT(5)-147 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(5)-154 sunk, 31 August 1943.

LCT(5)-175 sunk, 21 February 1945.

LCT(5)-182 sunk off the Solomon Islands, 7 August 1944.

LCT(5)-185 sunk off Bizerte, Tunisia, 24 January 1944.

LCT(5)-196 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 27 September 1943.

LCT(5)-197 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-200 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(5)-208 sunk off Algeria, 20 June 1943.

LCT(5)-209 sunk off northern France, 10 June 1944.

LCT(5)-215 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 1943.

LCT(5)-220 sunk at Anzio, Italy, 13 February 1944.

LCT(5)-241 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 15 September 1943.

LCT(5)-242 sunk off Naples, Italy, 2 December 1943.

LCT(5)-244 sunk off northern France, 8 June 1944.

LCT(5)-253 sunk on passage to Tarawa, 21 January 1945.

LCT(5)-293 sunk in English Channel, 11 October 1944.

LCT(5)-294 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-305 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-311 sunk off Bizerte, Tunisia, 9 August 1943.

LCT(5)-315 sunk at Eniwetok Atoll, Marshall Islands, 23 March 1944.

LCT(5)-319 sunk at Kiska, Aleutian Islands, 27 August 1943.

LCT(5)-332 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-340 sunk, 9 February 1944 and stricken from the Navy List, 6 March 1944.

LCT(5)-342 sunk off Salerno, Italy, 29 September 1943.

LCT(5)-352 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 12 April 1945.

LCT(5)-362 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-364 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(5)-366 sunk, 9 September 1943.

LCT(5)-413 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(5)-458 sunk off northern France, 7 June 1944.

LCT(5)-459 sunk off western France, 19 September 1944.

LCT(5)-486 sunk off northern France, 7 June 1944.

LCT(5)-496 sunk in the English Channel, 2 October 1943.

LCT(6)-548 sunk at Portsmouth, England, October 1944.

LCT(6)-555 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-572 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(6)-579 sunk off Palau, Caroline Islands, 4 October 1944.

LCT(6)-582 sunk in the Azores Islands, 22 January 1944.

LCT(6)-593 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-597 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-612 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-703 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-713 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(6)-714 sunk off northern France, June 1944.

LCT(6)-777 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

LCT(6)-823 sunk off Palau, Caroline Islands, 27 September 1944.

LCT(6)-961 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

LCT(6)-963 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

LCT(6)-983 sunk at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 21 May 1944.

LCT(6)-984 sunk, 15 May 1944, and stricken from the Navy List, 9 June 1944.

LCT(6)-988 sunk, 15 May 1944, ans stricken from the Navy List, 9 June 1944.

LCT(6)-995 sunk at Guam, Mariana Islands, 21 April 1945.

LCT(6)-1029 sunk at Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 2 March 1945.

LCT(6)-1050 sunk off Ie Shima, Ryukyu Islands, 27 July 1945.

LCT(6)-1075 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 10 December 1944.

LCT(6)-1090 sunk off Luzon, Philippine Islands, 26 March 1945.

LCT(6)-1151 sunk, 26 January 1945.

LCT(6)-1358 sunk off California, 4 May 1945.

5 x Landing Craft, Infantry (Gunboat) (LCI(G))

USS LCI(G)-82 sunk by Japanese suicide boat off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 4 April 1945.

USS LCI(G)-365 sunk by Japanese suicide boat in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 10 January 1945.

USS LCI(G)-459 sunk off Palau, Caroline Islands, 19 September 1944.

USS LCI(G)-468 sunk, 17 June 1944.

USS LCI(G)-474 sunk off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 17 February 1945.

16 x Landing Craft, Infantry (Large) (LCI(L))

USS LCI(L)-1 sunk off Bizerte, Tunisia, 17 August 1943.

USS LCI(L)-20 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 22 January 1944.

USS LCI(L)-32 sunk off Anzio, Italy, 26 January 1944.

USS LCI(L)-85 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-91 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-92 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-93 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-219 sunk off northern France, 11 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-232 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-339 sunk off New Guinea, 4 September 1943.

USS LCI(L)-416 sunk off northern France, 9 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-497 sunk off northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-553 sunk off Northern France, 6 June 1944.

USS LCI(L)-600 sunk by undetermined explosion at Ulithi, Caroline Islands, 12 January 1945.

USS LCI(L)-684 sunk off Samar, Philippine Islands, 12 November 1945.

USS LCI(L)-1065 sunk off Leyte, Philippine Islands, 24 October 1944.

1 x Landing Craft, Infantry (Mortar) (LCI(M))

USS LCI(M)-974 sunk by Japanese suicide boat in Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 10 January 1945.

7 x Landing Craft, Support (Large)(Mk. III) (LCS(L))

USS LCS(L)(3)-7 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-15 sunk by Kamikaze aircraft off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 22 April 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-26 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-33 sunk by shore batteries off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-37 engines damaged beyond repair by a depth charge dropped under the fantail by a suicide boat off Nakagusuki Wan, Okinawa, 28 April 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-49 sunk by Suicide boat off Mariveles, Corregidor Channel, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 16 February 1945.

USS LCS(L)(3)-127 sunk off California, 5 March 1945, and stricken from the Navy List, 30 March 1945.


HMS Bittern (1897)

HMS Tarabuso (1897) was a C class destroyer that served in home waters for her entire career. She was part of the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla in 1914-1918, and was lost with her entire crew after she collided with SS Kenilworth in thick fog on 4 April 1918.

The Vickers 30-knotters had four Thornycroft boilers in two stokeholds, with the second and third boilers sharing a single funnel. They followed the standard general layout, with a turtleback foredeck, with a conning tower with gun platform and bridge above just behind the turtledeck. Two 6-pounder guns were on either side of the conning tower, two on the sides of the ship and one on the stern. On the three ships of the 1985-6 programme one torpedo tube was between the first and second funnel and the second behind the rear funnel. They were built with the chart table on the front of the bridge/ gun platform.

Carriera prebellica

Il Tarabuso was laid down on 18 February 1896 and launched on 1 February 1987.

On 21 October 1898 a navigating party was sent from Chatham to bring the Tarabuso from Vickers at Barrow.

Her official trials were ordered to begin off Sheerness on 16 November 1898. Trials in the North Sea were ordered to begin on 24 November, and her engines were expected to indicate 6,000hp.

On 6 January 1899 her steering gear began erratic while she was in the middle of a measured mile trial, and she narrowly avoiding running onto the Maplin Sands after her engines were thrown into reverse. She briefly hit the sands, sprang a leak and had to return to Chatham.

She carried out the same trial two weeks later, reaching just over 30 knots at 6,659hp.

In 1899 the Tarabuso took part in speed and fuel efficiency trials. She reached 30.354 knots at 6,366ihp, consuming 2.40 pounds of coal per iHP per hour and 30.403 knots at 6,627ihp

Brassey&rsquos Naval Annual of 1900 listed those results, and a faster speed of 30.408 knots at 6,627ihp.

On Wednesday 13 December 1899 she completed her steam trials, and was placed on the effective list as ready for commission.

In 1900-1904 the Tarabuso was part of the Nore Flotilla, one of the three that contained all of the home based destroyers.

Il Tarabuso took part in the 1900 naval manoeuvres, when she formed part of the Chatham division of Fleet B, the defensive fleet. Fleet A was smaller, but was expecting reinforcements from the Mediterranean, suggesting that the potential enemy at this stage was France.

Il Tarabuso took part in the 1901 naval manoeuvres, which began in late July. These involved two fleets &ndash Fleet B began in the North Sea, and had the task of keeping the English Channel open to trade. Fleet X began off the north coast of Ireland, and had the task of stopping trade in the Channel. Il Tarabuso was part of a force of destroyers from Chatham that joined Fleet X. This was the first time both sides in the annual exercises had been given an equal force of destroyers. The exercises ended with a victory for Fleet X. The destroyer forces didn&rsquot live up to expectations, either in torpedo attack or as scouts.

In November 1901 it was announced that her boilers were to be re-tubed, after some time operating with the Medway Destroyer Instructional Flotilla.

In 1904 the Tarabuso moved to the Devonport Flotilla.

In February 1904 her commanding officer, Lt Harrold, was sued by Mr James Piper, owner of the barge Rosebank. He claimed that Harrold had travelled up the Medway at excessive speed, causing his barge to hit the barge Eastern. However the Navy claimed that the Tarabuso had only being going at 8 knots, and Harrold was acquitted.

In mid-April 1904 she was released from the Sheerneess Dockyards, and judged to be fit to escort the King and Queen during their return voyage across the Irish Sea. This was a short duty, and on 2 May 1904 she was paid off at Chatham, she entered the Medway Reserve and her crew moved to the new destroyer Usk.

In the summer of 1904 she took part in the annual naval manoeuvres. On the morning of Monday 25 July she left Kingstown to join the destroyer flotilla, but instead had to come to the aid of the Codling Lightship, which had developed a problem with its engines.

On 3 January 1905 her crew was to be brought up to its full complement, so she could replace the Leven in the Devonport Instructional Flotilla.

In late March 1905 she was commissioned under the command of Lt. J. Kiddle, with the crew from the pesce luna, and replaced her in the Medway Flotilla.

In 1905 she was part of the 3rd Division, one of three destroyer divisions attached to the Channel Fleet

In 1909-1913 she was part of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla, part of the 3rd Division of the Home Fleet, which contained the older battleships.

In July 1914 she was in active commission at Devonport, with the 7th Destroyer Flotilla, one of the patrol flotillas.

Prima guerra mondiale

Her commander at the outbreak of the First World War was Gordon Campbell. He was later awarded the Victoria Cross for sinking the German submarine U-83 on 17 February 1917, while in command of the Q Ship HMS Farnborough. At the time the reason for the award was kept secret, causing some interest in the press!

In August 1914 she wasn&rsquot listed in the Pink List, the Admiralty list of warship location. At that point no destroyers were listed as part of the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla, so this may just reflect a gap in the lists.

In November 1914 she was one of four destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla.

In June 1915 she was one of six destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla.

In January 1916 she was one of four destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla, but she was undergoing repairs that were expected to end on 15 January and was in the hands of a care and maintenance party.

In October 1916 she was one of six destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla

In January 1917 she was one of six destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla

On 11 February 1917 she was patrolling close to Plymouth when she sighted a mine, which she sank with rifle fire. This meant that the port was closed from 3.30pm while the approaches were checked, The Tarabuso e pesce luna were ordered to patrol off the Eddystone and divert any approaching shipping. However the message didn&rsquot reach the troop ship SS Afric, which was sunk by a German submarine early on 12 February.

On 25 April 1917 UB-32 torpedoed the troop ship SS Ballarat, carrying 1,760 troops from Melbourne to Plymouth. All of the troops onboard were rescued, and the Tarabuso was ordered to escort two tugs to her position to try and save the ship. In the dark they went past her, and didn&rsquot find her until 1.25am. They were then ordered to wait until dawn before attempting to take her in tow, but she sank at 4.30am on 26 April.

In June 1917 she was one of four active destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla

In January 1918 she was one of four destroyers in the Devonport Local Defence Flotilla, but she was undergoing repairs.

Il Tarabuso sank after she collided with SS Kenilworth in thick fog off Portland Bill on 4 April 1918. Seventy five men were lost and there were no survivors.

Comandante in capo
-January 1899-: Lt Blunt
-February 1904-: Lt Harrold
-July 1904-: Lt Hammond
March 1905-: Lt J. Kiddle
-August 1914-: Gordon Campbell


Forces At Other Locations In The Philippine Islands

Heavy Cruiser
CA-30 Houston, Iloilo PI

Incrociatore leggero
CL-47 Boise, Cebu, PI
Note Boise Belonged to the Pacific Fleet,
She had recently escorted a reinforcement convoy to the Philippines and was "Drafted" into the Asiatic Fleet.

sottomarini
SS-141, S-36, on patrol off Lingayen, PI
SS-144, S-39, on patrol off Sarosogon Bay, Luzon PI

Seaplane Tenders
AVD-7 William B. Preston, Davao, PI
AVP-2 Huron, Palawan, PI


Company History

The EJ legacy dates back to 1883 when William E. Malpass and his father-in-law Richard W. Round established a foundry on the shores of Lake Charlevoix, in the town of East Jordan, Michigan, USA. This foundry was called Round and Malpass Foundry and originally produced cast parts for the lumber industry, machinery, ships, agricultural equipment, and railroads. In 1886, William&rsquos brother, James, joined the business and the company was renamed East Jordan Iron Works.

In the 1920s, when the lumbering era came to a close, the company welcomed the second generation to the business and expanded into new markets allowing continued success in changing times. Production shifted to street castings, water works valves, fire hydrants, and various industrial castings. Through World War II, the foundry produced castings for the war effort. In the 1950s, semi-automation was introduced into the foundry.

During the 1960s, the third generation automated the foundry with the addition of a high-pressure molding line. By integrating automatic sand processing and mechanized casting handling systems, the company was operating the largest automated molding line in the United States and maximized production capabilities.

Since the late 1980s, the business has been led by the fourth generation descendants of the Malpass family. They have transformed the Midwest business into an international leader of providing access solutions to infrastructure systems.

Beginning in the 1990s, acquisitions throughout the United States allowed the company to expand product lines, sales offices, distribution capabilities, and customer services across North America. In 2001, a new foundry was built in Oklahoma providing additional capacity to service growing markets in the United States, as well as Central and South America. The fifth generation of the Malpass family began joining the company in the late 1990s, continuing the strong family commitment to the company&rsquos success.

In the early 2000s, East Jordan Iron Works began turning its attention to expansion in other parts of the world, with the acquisition of Cavanagh Foundry in Ireland (2000), Norinco in France (2004), McCoy Construction Castings in Canada (2006), and HaveStock in Australia (2010).

In 2012, East Jordan Iron Works and its affiliated companies began doing business using the same name and brand, EJ. One global name and brand, supported by a single mission, vision, and set of values has unified the company. This action leverages all company resources to improve internal operations, as well as provide superior product offerings and services to its valued customers.

Increasing its global footprint, EJ continues to grow through acquisition and reinvestment with the addition of Bernard Cassart & Cie in Belgium (2012), Syracuse Castings Sales Corporation and Syracuse Castings West Corporation in the USA (2012), Etheridge Foundry & Machine Company in the USA (2012), E.A. Quirin Machine in the USA (2013), GMI Composites in the USA (2014), the municipal casting distribution of Mueller Canada Ltd., in Canada (2014), GAV GmbH in Germany (2015), Peter Savage Ltd. and Integrated Ducting Systems in the United Kingdom (2015), Schacht und Bautechnik Vertriebs GmbH (SBV) in Austria (2016), as well as the expansion of composite manufacturing in Birr, Ireland in (2018), the construction of a state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Northern Michigan, USA (2018) and the construction of a new fabrication facility in New York, USA (2019).

Today, the company provides a full line of access solutions for the infrastructure systems of municipalities, utility companies, airport and port authorities, and private companies. Products include manhole covers and frames, catch basin and curb inlet grates and frames, trench grates, and tree grates. In addition to traditional materials of gray or ductile cast iron, a continuously expanding array of innovative solutions are offered in composites, fabricated steel, and fabricated aluminum. EJ also provides products for water supply systems including fire hydrants and valves, valve and service boxes, and various other water supply products. EJ supplies products to infrastructure projects in 6 of the 7 continents.

EJ continues to be 100% owned by descendants of William E. Malpass, and members of the family continue to be active in managing the business. The fourth and fifth generation remain dedicated to maintaining the company&rsquos long-established culture and values, setting strategies and priorities. This has allowed EJ to remain one of the most stable, progressive, and well-tooled manufacturing companies in the world. The corporate headquarters continues to remain in East Jordan, Michigan, USA.


Bittern AM-36 - History

AUGUSTA (CA-31) FF
Capt. John H. Magruder, Jr.
MARBLEHEAD (CL-12)
Cmdr. Thomas Moran

ASHEVILLE (PG-21)
Cmdr. Hobart A. Sailor
ISABEL (PY-10)
tenente comandante Henry W. Goodall
TULSA (PG-22)
Cmdr. Roswell H. Blair

DESTROYER DIVISION THIRTEEN
Commander Myron W. Hutchinson, Jr.

WHIPPLE (DD-217) (F)
tenente comandante Rupert M. Zimmerli
ALDEN (DD-211)
tenente comandante Stanley F. Patten
BARKER (DD-213)
tenente comandante Justin S. Fitzgerald
JOHN D. EDWARDS (DD-216)
tenente comandante William G. Fisher

SUBMARINE DIVISION FOURTEEN
Commander John Wilkes

PICKEREL (SS-177) (F)
Lt. Barton E. Bacon, Jr.
PERMIT (SS-178)
tenente comandante Adrian M. Hurst
PERCH (SS-176)
Lt. David A. Hurt
PIKE (SS-173)
Lt. William A. New
PORPOISE (SS-172)
tenente comandante Joseph A. Callaghan
TARPON (SS-175)
tenente comandante William W. Weeden, Jr.

SUBMARINE DIVISION TEN
Commander Paul R. Gluting

S-37 (SS-142) (F)
Lt. Thomas L. Greene
S-36 (SS-141)
Lt. Rob R. McGregor
S-38 (SS-143)
Lt. Roland F. Pryce
S-39 (SS-144)
Lt. Earle C. Hawk
S-40 (SS-145)
Lt. Richard C. Lake
S-41 (SS-146)
Lt. Charles O. Triebel

LANGLEY (AV-3)**
Commander Arthur C. Davis**

VP-21**
Commander Sam L. LaHache**

HERON (AVP-2)
Lt. Charles R. Carroll

Utility Unit - 3 VJ
Lt. (jg) F. W. Sheppard

DESTROYER DIVISION FOURTEEN
Commander Walter C. Ansel

STEWART (DD-224) (F)
tenente comandante Donald S. Evans
BULMER (DD-222)
tenente comandante James J. McGlynn
EDSALL (DD-219)
tenente comandante Abel C. J. Sabalot
PARROTT (DD-218)
tenente comandante Wilkie H. Brereton

DESTROYER DIVISION FIFTEEN
Commander Francis A. Smith

PEARY (DD-226) (F)
tenente comandante William G. Lalor
JOHN D. FORD (DD-228)
tenente comandante John D. Shaw
PILLSBURY (DD-227)
tenente comandante Arthur A. Ageton
POPE (DD-225)
tenente comandante Clarence L. C. Atkeson, Jr.

MINE DIVISION THREE
Lieutenant Tillett S. Daniel

BITTERN (AM-36) (F)
Lt. Tillett S. Daniel
FINCH (AM-9)
Lt. Benjamin May, 2nd


USS Lapwing (AM-1)

Authored By: JR Potts, AUS 173d AB | Last Edited: 07/18/2016 | Contenuto e copiawww.MilitaryFactory.com | Il testo che segue è esclusivo di questo sito.

Leading up to 1917, the United States Navy had used sloops and tugs to locate and destroy enemy mines in harbors and on the seas. As American ships ventured ever closer to foreign shores, a special ship was needed to locate and remove such mines from the all-important sea lanes. The USS Lapwing (AM-1) was the lead ship of her class of a minesweepers becoming, the first minesweeper in United States Navy history. The class was named for birds, the lapwing a plover that was slow and in flight and seemed to display an uneven wing-flapping action. The navy built 49 of these ships to be used worldwide in much the same vein as her namesake bird ranging in abundance throughout Europe, Asia and Northern Africa. Lapwing was laid down in October of 1917 at the Todd Shipyard Company in New York and commissioned on June 12th, 1918 with Lieutenant (Junior Grade) William Fremgen in command. The Navy felt these ships could double in the training role and thusly stationed junior grade officers in command of them.

USS Lapwing, Minesweeper No.1, put to sea for normal sea trials with her new crew. The trials were not only needed to check the ships handling but to devise new minesweeping maneuvers for the Navy. Following several convoy escort cruises to Halifax, Lapwing departed New London, Connecticut on September 26th of 1918 for Europe. Assigned to the North Sea mine barrage, the USS Lapwing removed some 2,160 wartime mines from British waters between June and September of 1919.

During World War 1, the British and Germans mined such sea lanes in the North Sea and throughout the English Channel. There have always been three major uses for mine: offensive, defensive and psychological. Offensive mines were dropped in enemy waters, just outside the valuable harbors and in shipping routes with the intention of sinking unsuspecting ships. Defensive minefields could be congregated at strategic locations and use to protect a coast from enemy ships and submarines. Minefields also carried with them the inherent psychological effect and could be equally set along enemy shipping lanes. Just a few a mines along a major shipping route could delay enemy supply convoys for hours or days until the entire area was swept and cleared by mine sweepers.

Minesweepers of this time were only equipped with mechanical sweep devices used to detonate "contact" mines. The earliest mines were usually the contact type - a low cost alternative to any other anti-ship weapon of the day. Contact mines needed to be very close to a metal target before they could trigger detonation, limiting their damage to the immediate vicinity and usually affecting only the single vessel that had triggered the detonation. The first mine detonators that were used contained a vial filled with sulfuric acid surrounded by a mixture of potassium perchlorate and sugar. When the vial was crushed, the acid ignited a flame that - in turn - ignited the onboard gunpowder causing a spectacular localized detonation. Early in the 1870s, the Hertz Horn Mine was invented. These mines could remain active in the sea for several years after being laid down. The mine's upper half was studded with hollow lead spikes, each about 10 inches long and containing a glass vial filled with sulfuric acid. When the mine bumped against a ship's hull it would crush the metal spiked "horn" and crack the vial inside of it, releasing the acid. The acid would drain down through a tube to a lead acid battery to which the battery would then become energized and cause a quick electrical spark, leading to detonation and explosion. Many early mines were extremely fragile and unstable, making them quite dangerous to handle. Their glass containers were filled with nitro or mechanical devices that activated them when tilted. At any rate, it was a dangerous business and many mine laying ships were destroyed when their own cargo of live mines exploded.

A submarine could run at any depth down to the seabed and, as a result, the "antenna mine" was invented to combat them. This particular mine had a copper wire attached to a buoy that floated above the mine. The top and bottom part of the cable connecting the mine to the weight on the seabed that was also made of copper. If a submarine's steel hull touched the copper wire, the slight voltage produced from the contact between two different metals produced a charge that detonated the mine.

Mechanical sweeps became devices designed to cut the anchoring cables of moored mines and tow them behind the minesweeper. They utilized a towed body called oropesa floats, connected to a kite otter that was needed to maintain the sweep at the desired depth and position. A contact sweep used a wire that was dragged through the water by one or two ships to cut the mooring wire of floating mines or provided a distance sweep that mimicked a ship to purposely detonate such mines. Each run could cover between one and two hundred meters and the ships were required to move deliberately and slowly in a straight line. If a contact sweep hit a mine, the wire of the sweep rubbed against the mooring wire until it was fully cut. Sometimes the minesweeper towed explosive devices to cut the mine's wire and were used to lessen the strain on the sweeping wire. Mines that were cut free were then generally exploded with a blast from a 3-inch deck gun.

After World War 1, Lapwing returned to the United States and, after normal repairs and some re-crewing, she was dispatched to the West Coast, arriving in San Diego in October of 1920. USS Lapwing received orders to sail for Pearl Harbor in January of 1921. USS Lapwing was assigned to the Pacific Fleet stationed at Pearl Harbor and performed minesweeping operations in Hawaiian waters until she was decommissioned on April 11th, 1922 at Pearl.

The U.S. Navy now planned for "Small Seaplane Tenders" (AVPs), vessels requiring shallow drafts and capable of supporting one flight squadron. These vessels were cheaper to build or convert from other classes and were able to operate in shallow waters. These ships also had hangars for storing and maintaining aircraft without the need for a flight deck. Cranes were added to Lapwing to lower aircraft into the sea for take-off and to recover them after landing. The seaplane could only be operated in a smooth sea and the ship had to stop for launching or recovery of aircraft, and both actions could take around 20 minutes each. The tender was often stationed ten miles or so in front of the main battle fleet along with the cruiser screen for protection when it launched its aircraft. On September 1st, 1932, USS Lapwing was officially converted to a Small Seaplane Tender.

USS Lapwing, with Lieutenant R. J. Arnold in command, now had a new mission to serve and protect her seaplane aircraft. The ship's dimensions changed to support the new mission. The added weight of the aircraft crane and supporting aircraft supplies (along with 80,000 gallons of aviation fuel) increased her draught to 13 feet, 1 inch and the crew increased by the addition of seven airmen. Her new station was Coco Solo, Canal Zone and she arrived for duty in October of 1932.

From 1933 to 1941, Lapwing participated in various exercises with her aircraft, helping develop American naval aviation capability and formulate the seaplane tender role for future conflicts. USS Lapwing's participation in developing the tender's mission was important enough that she was reclassified as a Small Seaplane Tender on January 22nd, 1936. USS Lapwing (AVP-1) operated primarily with seaplanes in the Panama Canal Zone, along the West Coast, and in the Caribbean Sea, the latter basing her at Trinidad in the British West Indies.

Her World War 2 service saw Lapwing assigned to the North Atlantic with Patrol Wing 3. She departed the Caribbean in February of 1942 and arrived in Narsarssuak, Greenland in May of 1942. Lapwing remained in the North Atlantic, engaging in patrol and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) missions with her seaplanes until 1943.

She was assigned another tour in the Caribbean and arrived in Key West in June of 1943 for duty as a training ship. Operating out of the Fleet Sound School for 11 months, Lapwing's mission was to continue to develop tactics for air ASW technology. Lapwing's task force cruised to Recife, Brazil in August of 1944 looking for enemy submarines. The task force and the seaplane tender returned to Key West in early September and performed various training missions for the rest of the war. Lapwing steamed to Charleston, South Carolina on October 5th, 1945. Once there, she was officially decommissioned and struck from the naval roster on November 29th, 1945. She was sold on August 19th, 1946 to W. S. Sanders, Norfolk, Virginia by the War Shipping Administration (WSA), a World War 2 emergency war agency of the US government tasked to purchase and operate civilian shipping tonnage that was so desperately needed for the US war effort. Her ultimate fate beyond that was unknown.


Guarda il video: Il tarabuso (Potrebbe 2022).